Fundamentals of Web Application Architecture | Developers Studio

Web Applications have evolved drastically from the early days of static pages to dynamic social media networks. Now modern websites offer interactive features with full-fledged mobile support. Over 73% of firms have recently invested revenues in web application development services to differentiate their brands. Businesses with attractive and easy-to-navigate websites tend to have more chances of getting ranked on the world’s popular search engines for higher traffic.

A web application is a computer program that aims to execute user queries right from the web browser. It performs multiple functionalities to generate a specific result for the user. Different tools and technologies make up a functional and efficient web-based system.

Web Application Architecture - Explained

As the name implies, web application architecture is the blueprint for any web application. Web-based systems are created using several components such as interfaces, repositories, servers, and middleware counterparts. Web Application architecture is a base that defines interconnectivity between all the components. It describes where different modules require each other and where they work independently. In more technical terms, Web Application architecture layouts the working hierarchy between the client-side and server side of an online system.

Core Components of a Web Application

A saleable, secure, and robust web application architecture is needed for every application to perform efficiently. It also determines global network traffic, as most apps and devices use cloud-based communication nowadays. The market value of cloud applications is $146 Billion in 2022.

Two primary components make up a web application architecture. One is the front-end implementation, a client-side module, and the second is the back-end or server side, where all business logic operations and data processing occur. A high-performing architecture allows seamless interaction between these two components in web applications, making them efficient and reliable.

Client-Server Model

The internet is composed of the client-server model in which the end user communicates with cloud repositories via a network connection for different operations. This model is more reliable and powerful as it works independently without impacting other users’ services.

UI Application Components (Client-Side)

In web terminology, the client side is also known as the application's front end. The client-side architecture of a web application is responsible for displaying the visible part of the web application, i.e., the User interface. The end-user sees it on the web browser, such as buttons and navigation bars. Client-side architecture is laid through markup languages, mainly HTML for structuring and CSS for styling the UI. Most web applications use Javascript on the front end to enable interaction within the application. An excellent example of the front end is if the user’s mouse hovers on YouTube thumbnails, it expands or responds to the client’s clicks.

Structural Components (Server-Side)

Much like the application's front end, serve-side components define everything that happens on the server or the back end of the application. It is the backbone of every web application, providing all significant functionality and information processing from the databases. All business logic, interaction, and rendering process occur on the server side before an output is presented to the user. The back end is not visible to the client, but it is responsible for handling all sorts of requests. Developers utilize different programming languages to create the back-end of a web application, including C#, Java, PHP, Python, etc.

Web Application Architecture in Modern Development

The interaction model between the client-side and server-side defines a web application architecture. Modern-day applications are built on efficient architectures that enable multitasking, fast processing, and flexibility when operated on different devices. There are several architectures to create a web application, and choosing a sufficient pattern increases the application's performance. Security also depends on a reliable architecture that provides a secure blueprint for data processing between the app’s components.

There are different architectural patterns followed by businesses to deploy their web applications. Some of the significant examples include MVC (Model-View-Controller), MVVM (Model–View–View model), SPA (Single-Page App), and microservices. Each pattern has advantages and disadvantages and depends on the system's needs.

Layers of Web Application Architecture

Every web application is created in a layered pattern that provides a good representation of functionality at each step. Different layers of architecture also ensure the separation of concerns, making the production code more organized and scalable. Commonly, most modern-day systems divide their architecture into four layers to improve efficiency.

Presentation Layer (PL)

PL (Presentation Layer) is at the top of every web application architecture. It defines the UI components of the application; in simple terms, the PL lays down the foundations of the client side. The goal of this layer is to get input data from the user and to display the output from the server. Different scripting technologies are used to create the PL. React, and Angular are widely used to create interactive and responsive web application presentation layers.

Business Logic Layer (BLL)

BLL (Business Logic Layer) defines mathematical logic, business operations, and rules for a web application. BLL comes after the PL in most architectural patterns and is responsible for logical processes, for example, logging into a profile within a network. This layer is called the Application Layer, as it responds to customers’ queries sent from the browser in the form of HTTP requests. For example, when booking a hotel online, the BLL checks the room’s availability and reservation charges.

Data Service Layer (DSL)

In a web application architecture, DSL (Data Service Layer) acts as a transmission channel between the data processed by BLL and the information presented to PL. Other than transferring data, it also protects the information of web architecture by separating business logic operations from the end-user.

Data Access Layer (DAL)

As the name suggests, DAL (Data Access Layer) provides access to the data in different repositories, such as entity-relational databases, XML, and binary files across the servers. The DAL performs CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations in web application architecture based on user requests.


With the evolution of technology, web applications have overtaken static systems. In the business industry, it is a core component as downloadable software are prone to cyberattacks and thefts. Therefore, it is crucial for any organization to choose the right web application architecture. Many parameters are defined within an architecture, such as speed, security, and robustness. Regardless of any specific programming stack, a scaleable architecture is required to build a reliable solution for businesses operating in any industry. A good architectural pattern enables developers to deploy applications efficiently. Developers Studio’s modern development stack provides the ideal blueprint to build the right web application for our clients.

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